Saturday, July 18, 2020

7 Better Ways to Answer What Do You Do

7 Better Ways to Answer What Do You Do You are at networking event and everything is going on well. People are talking to colleagues and acquaintances, drinks are being passed around, everyone is having a good time. You walk over and join a colleague who is talking to a lady you have not met before.Your colleague introduces the both of you, and a second after expressing your pleasure at meeting the lady, the dreaded question comes from the lady:“So, what do you do?” This question has become a natural part of conversations, either when you are meeting new people for the first time or when you are catching up with old friends and acquaintances you have not seen in a while.Despite being a very common conversation starter, many people dread this question, and rightfully so.On the surface, it looks like a very simple question. In reality, it is a very loaded question that is usually accompanied by some level of judgment and awkwardness.Beneath the simplicity of the question are other subliminal questions, such as:Do you ac tually work? What exactly do you do to earn your paycheck? How much money do you earn? Do you earn more than me? How intelligent are you? What’s your socioeconomic status? How powerful or connected are you? Can you help me in any way? How should I judge you? What phase of life are you in? How ambitious are you? Should I give you my time and attention?Generally, people like categorizing things. It makes it easier to make sense of the world. By asking what you do, people are looking for an easy way to define and judge you. Your answer to the question allows them to put you in a certain category and then assign you the qualities/traits they associate with that category.For instance, if you say that you are an investment banker, a person might immediately assume that you earn a six figure paycheck, you spend your day entire day poring over financial reports, and you probably have an over-inflated ego.Unfortunately, your job does not define you, which is what makes this question an awk ward one to answer. You are aware that there is more to you than what you do, yet at the same time you know that people will judge you based on what you do. This explains why most people dread and try to avoid this question.The good thing is that you don’t have to be afraid of this question. Since you know that it will be accompanied by judgment, whether willingly or inadvertently, this question gives you an opportunity to shape other people’s perception of you.In addition, since the question is used as a conversation starter, you answer to the question determines the direction that the conversation will take. If you answer it the right way, you can paint yourself as an amazing person and get the other person interested in knowing more about you, thereby giving both of you a chance to forge a close friendship.On the other hand, if you give a boring answer to the question, it will be the beginning of the end of the conversation, and you will find yourself having little success in networking events.So, if this question is virtually unavoidable, yet it determines others perception of you and shapes the flow of the conversation, what is the right way to answer the question?Below are 7 ways to answer the question that are better than simply stating your job title or trying to avoid the question. HIGHLIGHT WHAT PROBLEM YOU SOLVEWhy do you do what you do?If you are employed, your employer did not hire you simply because they needed someone to sit at a desk and receive a paycheck at the end of the month.You were hired to help the organization solve a certain problem. If you are a freelancer or a business owner, clients do not pay for your products or services simply because they have money to spend. They pay you to help them solve a particular problem.The reason you get paid is a better explanation of what you do that your job title. When someone asks you what you do, instead of answering with your job title, tell them about the problems you solve as part of your job.A good way of doing this is to use the following template:I am a {insert job title} specializing in {insert what you actually do} to help {insert group of people} {insert desired outcome}For example, let’s assume you are a freelance writer. You don’t just write for the sake of writing. There is a certain problem you actually solve for your clients. Using the above template, a great answer to the question “what do you do?” would be,“I am a freelance writer specializing in creating in-depth and high value content to help business owners attract visitors and convert them into paying clients.”Answering the question by highlighting the problems you solve as part of your job is a lot more interesting than simply saying that you are a freelance writer. Instead of pigeon-holing you into a certain category, this response is more focused on the value you bring to the table.In addition, it provides an avenue for the conversation to go further, since the other person might be in terested in learning how exactly you go about solving the problems.TELL A STORYHuman beings love stories and narratives. Stories are hardwired into our brains. They make things more believable and more memorable, and help us to build connections with other people.According to a study by researchers from Princeton University, when someone is telling a story, the brain activity of the listener mirrors the brain activity of the story teller, thus enhancing the connection between the two of them.Since humans already love stories, you can make your answer to the question regarding what you do more interesting by weaving a story into the answer.When someone asks what you do, give them a story about something that is interesting or exciting about your work. Telling stories not only makes your answer interesting, it also allows you to shape the mental picture the other person holds about what you do.Stories allow you to provide context to what you do, thereby dispelling any erroneous assump tions the other person might have about your line of work. For instance, instead of saying you are a wildlife conservationist, you might weave in a story into your answer by saying:“I am currently working as a wildlife conservationist. Just last month, I was at the Maasai Mara game reserve in Kenya where we tracked five rhinos by helicopter, captured them and moved them to the Tsavo Game Reserve. We are trying to re-introduce rhinos to the Tsavo after rhino populations in the Tsavo were depleted due to poaching activities.”This answer is more interesting, exciting and engaging that simply stating that you are a wildlife conservationist. It also provides more fodder for the conversation, since the other person might be interested in knowing how rhinos are tracked and captured, how they are moved, what you did to deal with the poaching problem and so on.They are also more likely to remember meeting you than if you had only mentioned that you are wildlife conservationist without di vulging any further information.TEACH SOMETHING ABOUT YOUR LINE OF WORKMost people will stereotype you according to what you do based on something they heard from a friend or relative who actually knows nothing about your line of work.When someone asks you what you do, instead of stating your job title and leaving it to them to judge you based on their erroneous assumptions, you should take the question as an opportunity for you to teach them something about your line of work.This does not mean that you should launch into a thirty minute talk about everything that pertains to your profession. You are not giving the other person a career talk.Simply pick a small element of your profession that you think they don’t know about and educate them about it. This could be something like the void that you are filling in the market, the latest trends in your industry, some work trivia, some common misconceptions about your line of work, some interesting information you learned recently, and so on.Below is an example of how you might do this.“I am a cyber-security consultant. Did you know that in the last year alone, hackers stole in excess of $172 billion from more than 978 million people scattered across 20 countries?”Sharing such a piece of information about your line of work positions you as someone who is quite knowledgeable about his line of work. In addition, it provides an opportunity to continue with the conversation.For instance, in the above example, the other person might be shocked that so much money gets stolen through cyber-theft and might ask you for tips on how to keep their online accounts safe.This gives you space to talk about something you enjoy and to keep the conversation going.PROMOTE YOURSELFSometimes, being asked what you do also gives you an opportunity to promote yourself to a potential client or employer.This is particularly useful in corporate or professional events where you are likely to be talking to a decision maker who could poten tially hire you or bring you some business.Most people think that they risk coming across as self-centered by promoting themselves.However, promoting yourself is a win-win situation for both of you. People go into professional events looking for people who can add some value to their lives or their businesses.By telling the other person what you are good at and how you can help them or their business, you are not only making it easier for them to find someone that can bring value, but also creating an opportunity for you to get a new client. Both of you benefit from the interaction.This method is particularly effective when you know something about what the other person does, since it becomes much easier for you to tie what you do to what they might be looking for.For instance, let’s assume you are a freelance writer chatting up an online business owner who might be interested in hiring the services of a writer. If they ask what you do for a living, you can use it as a chance for self-promotion by saying,“I am a freelancer writer who specializes in the financial technology niche. My content has been published on Magazine X and Publication Y, and I also won last year’s Tech Blogger of The Year Award.”With this answer, you are essentially telling the guy that you are the best person if they need a writer.At the same time, you are not directly asking them for a job, which would put undue pressure on them if you just met.EXPLAIN WHAT YOU DO IN A RELATABLE WAYConversations are more interesting when all the parties can relate to whatever is being said. When someone asks what you do, instead of trying to impress them with technical aspects about your job and professional jargon that will leave them confused, it is much better to explain it in a way that they can relate to.By doing this, you are taking the focus from yourself and transferring it to the other person. Ask yourself how your line of work is relevant to the other person.Below is an example of how y ou might do this.Person: So, what do you do?You: Let’s say you just launched a website for your business, and you are looking for ways to get more people to visit your website. I’m the person you would call to look at your website and optimize it so that it easier for people to find it on Google when they search for phrases related to your industry. My job is to convince Google’s algorithms that your website is important and relevant, so that they can rank it higher in their search results. Such an answer sounds more interesting than saying that you are an SEO consultant. It also gives the other person a better picture of what exactly you do, since they might not know what exactly an SEO consultant does.This answer also position’s you as an expert in the other person’s eyes. If they decide to start a website, or if someone they know has a website and is looking for someone to help them increase their traffic, you will be the first person to pop into their head.The key to m aking what you do appear more relevant or relatable to the other person is to show them how you can be of help to them or their business.COME UP WITH A CATCHY JOB TITLENormal is boring. No one remembers normal things. Imagine going to a networking event where you meet a number of new people, including an accountant, a HR manager, a sales representative and a Director of First Impressions.Who would you remember at the end of the night?Who would you be more interested in chatting with to find what exactly they do?My guess is that you would be more interested in learning more about the Director of First Impressions, even if the title is just a fancy name for a receptionist.If you want the question about what you do to become less of a dreadful moment and more of an opportunity to create intrigue, try to come up with a creative and catchy title for what you do, one that is different from your official job title. Having a catchy title does two things.First, it helps you stand out from th e pack and therefore makes you more memorable. In our example above, you would have only remembered the receptionist because of the catchy title she gave to her job.Second, a catchy title acts as an ice breaker. It sets the ground for fun and interesting conversation. If you tell someone that you are the Director of First Impressions, they will no doubt want to know what your job entails.Wondering what kind of catchy titles you can use to describe your job? Here are a couple of suggestion to inspire you: Instead of calling yourself the Chief Accountant, you might decide to become the ‘Director of Bean Counting’. Instead of calling yourself a sales rep, how about you become a ‘sales ninja’? Instead of saying you are a blogger, why not become a ‘digital crusader’?TALK ABOUT SOMETHING YOU ARE PASSIONATE ABOUTPeople do not always like their current jobs. In such cases, having to tell someone what you do is the last thing you want to do. You know that you will not sound enthu siastic about your job. You also don’t want to tell someone you just met that your job sucks.Alternatively, you might be unemployed at the moment, which makes the question a bit awkward. You don’t want to start explaining how you just got laid off to a complete stranger.The good thing, there is a technique you can use to answer the question like a pro without having to talk about how your job sucks or how you got laid off.The technique is to focus on something you are passionate about, whether or not it is something you get paid for. It does not even have to be related to your current job.Let’s say you are a sales person, but that is not your ideal job. You are taking some web design and development classes with the aim of starting your own web design business. If someone asks what you do, you don’t have to talk about your sales job.Instead, you can say, “I’m currently learning web design and development. I’m looking forward to starting my own web design business.”Wi th such an answer, you are taking charge of the situation and steering the conversation towards something you actually enjoy and would not mind talking about, while at the same time avoiding talking about your unemployment or the job you hate.SKIP THE DETAILSIf you are passionate about your job, someone asking what you do might be seen as an opportunity to talk about your job and your industry for hours on end. Before you launch into a monologue about your line of work, ask yourself why the other person is asking about what you do.Most times, people don’t really care about your line of work. They are not interested in knowing the history of your profession or why tool X works better than tool Y.There is a high probability that asking what you do for a living was just a way of getting the conversation started. Just like you wouldn’t go into a thirty minute monologue if someone asks you something about the weather, don’t blabber about you career for hours, unless the other perso n shows genuine interest about what you do.Instead, give them a short overview of what you do and then ask turn the question back to them or steer the conversation to another topic. Only go into details about your line of work if the other person makes it clear that they actually want to know more about what you do.WRAPPING UPA lot of people dread being asked what they do for a living, mainly because of the judgment that comes with the question. However, you do not have to experience a moment of anxiety and awkwardness when someone poses the question.By following the methods shared above, you will have 7 ways to better answer the question, without having to simply state your job title and hope for the best.The methods shared here allow you to take charge of the situation.Rather than leaving it to the other person to make inaccurate assumptions and judgments about you and your job, these methods allow you to steer the conversation in the direction you want.

Thursday, May 21, 2020

Why Golf Is a Sport Essay - 1078 Words

Argumentative Essay Why Golf Is a Sport A matter of opinion has separated a variety of sports enthusiasts apart, due to the ongoing debate of whether golf is a sport or simply a skill. Famed golfer Arnold Palmer declared, â€Å"Golf is deceptively simple and endlessly complicated; it satisfies the soul and frustrates the intellect. It is at the same time rewarding and maddening – and it is without a doubt the greatest game mankind has ever invented. (ThinkQuest.com)† These words state what every athlete experiences and feels when he/she is turning a double play, making the game winning three point shot, or throwing a hail mary pass for a touchdown. Golfers are athletes too, they train for that big moment just like any other athlete, but†¦show more content†¦Yet, many people object the physical exertion aspect with golf, that it does not require any. These objectors who say golf should not be included in that defined group are ignorant to athletics and its regulations. My definition of a sport is a competition that involves athletes who play to win within a certain structure of rules and regulations. Anyone can be an athlete; they do not have to be good to play a sport, as long as they try with some effort. A sport requires certain qualities of an individual too that it can not be without. Hand-eye coordination is vital to every sport out there. A basketball player has to shoot the ball into the hoop, a football player has to throw the ball to an open receiver, a baseball player has to swing a bat to hit a 95 mile per hour fastball, and golfers have to swing their club and hit a tiny ball a couple hundred yards. It is the number one aspect that is required in all sports. Although it is common to associate sports with many other qualities. The â€Å"manly† qualities of other sports such as cheerleaders and fights usually are not included in golf, some figure because it is missing these qualities, that it should not even be considered a sport. â€Å"Cheerleade rs are important to sports. They keep the crowd excited; they keep the participants enthused about winning; and they give you something else to look at when the action on the field of play grinds to a halt. With golf theres not a lot ofShow MoreRelatedWhy Golf Is The Best Sport?1247 Words   |  5 PagesWhat comes to your mind when I say the worlds hardest sport? I’m sure many of you are thinking football or baseball maybe even hockey, but how many of you would ever consider golf to be the hardest sport? Unlike the three sports mentioned above in golf you don’t have any teammates to takeover for you if you have a bad game. In golf you don’t get to choose one part of the game to be good at like in football baseball and hockey, you have to be great at every aspect of the game if you want to win. InRead MoreWhy Golf Is A Sport1065 Words   |  5 PagesGolf is a very well-known, controversial game that has held high popularity for many years possibly going back ev en as far as 960-1279 AD during the Song Dynasty. Though the game was played much differently during the Song Dynasty there is proof that there are similarities. The closest game played to the game today was in the 1400s in Scotland. The game played in the 1400s has changed over time but the main objective remains; on must hit a small ball, with a club, into a hole in has few hits as possibleRead MoreHow Traditional Can We Keep The Game Of Golf1348 Words   |  6 Pagesthe game of golf?† The game is evolving at every aspect. They are evolving the golf ball and making it better by making it fly longer in the air and landing softer on the greens. Along with the ball, the clubs are being made better and better making the ball go farther sometimes by even 50 yards. Each year, the irons are being made with better grooves which make the ball come off the club better and farther. While golf equipment is changing, the rules of golf are not. The rules of golf have been hereRead MoreEs say on The Rise Of The Golf Industry: Home And Abroad.1577 Words   |  7 Pagesgrowing sport all over the world. It is already the fastest growing sport in the United States. The game and its uniqueness has caught the eye of many people all over the world and in turn that catches the eye of many businesses that might want to use golf to their advantage by understanding the foreign market and try and relate there business to golf. Golf the fastest growing sport in the world? Where? Golf has been growing in America ever since the introduction of Tiger Woods into the golf industryRead MoreHow Golf Is A Sport1024 Words   |  5 PagesKendall Blaich Miss Royse English 4 8 April 2015 Golf is a Sport For the first time since 1904, golf will be returning to the 2016 Olympics in Rio (Shipnuck). Golf is a very complicated sport. It is a mental game along with a physical one. The many aspects of golf are very similar to other sports. Golf is a sport because it has similar components to other sports such as strategizing how you play, the equipment used, and the physical strength and endurance required. The first component is strategizingRead MoreHow Traditional Can We Keep The Game Of Golf1366 Words   |  6 Pagesof Golf To me, a very important question is, â€Å"How traditional can we keep the game of golf?† The game is evolving at every aspect. They are evolving the golf ball and making it better by making it fly longer in the air and landing softer on the greens. Along with the ball, the clubs are being made better and better making the ball go farther sometimes by even 50 yards. Each year, the irons are being made with better grooves which make the ball come off the club better and farther. While golf equipmentRead MoreThe Gentlemans Game1442 Words   |  6 PagesThe gentleman’s game What comes to your mind when I say the world’s hardest sport? I’m sure many of you start picturing football, baseball, maybe even hockey, but how many of you would ever consider golf to be the hardest sport? Unlike the three sports mentioned above in golf you don’t have any teammates to help you out if you’re have a bad game. In golf you have to be good at all aspects of the game in order to be successful unlike in football, baseball, and hockey where you can stillRead MoreThe Worlds Hardest Sport1505 Words   |  7 Pages What comes to your mind when I say the world’s hardest sport? I’m sure many of you start picturing football, baseball, maybe even hockey, but how many of you would ever consider golf to be the hardest sport? Unlike the three sports mentioned above, in golf you don’t have any teammates to help you out if you’re having a bad game. In golf you have to be good at all aspects of the game i n order to be successful, unlike in football, baseball, and hockey, where you can still be successfulRead MoreSports Facilities East Lothian Council Website1572 Words   |  7 PagesI used the John Gray website to find out the background knowledge of sports in East Lothian and to find famous sporting people who were born and raised in East Lothian. This centre has access to archives and is ran by professional historians which means that this website is reliable and that the information is accurate. I also used National records of Scotland to find out what the population was in East Lothian and other important details like income and employment. This is a reliable source as itRead MoreThe Evolution Of The Lpga994 Words   |  4 Pagesdiscuss the timeline of women in the sport of golf. To tee off my speech I’d like to talk about the issue at hand. Although many have heard of or may even be familiar with the LPGA as a professional organization, we should now discuss its importance as a trend changing group in women’s athletics. Body I. That issue, is gender equality in the sport of golf.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   A. Women’s golf before the LPGA   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   1. Golf originally emerged as a men’s sport. According to Reis and Correia (2013)

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Reflection On Gospels - 1090 Words

I think Jesus is always looking out for us. I think he has a plan, that plan is made long before our parents even dreamed of having kids. I know many get angry with God saying how can he let these evil things happen here on earth. When you think about it Jesus gave us the power to kill, abuse animals and children, and all around do terrible things to innocent people. Yet, I believe Jesus made these challenges for us so that we may overcome them, so that when the day comes, and Jesus does return to earth we will be in a better place alongside Jesus. From my twelve years at Catholic School, I thought I had learned everything about Jesus. It was not until I read Borg did I learn about the three pillars of the Gospels. The pillars are†¦show more content†¦Yet, it is for teaching sexual abstinence through funded programs, and it supports civic affirmation in Christianity, such as prayer in public schools (Borg, 2011, p. 297). The â€Å"Emerging Christianity† is a new way of adapting old traditions of Christianity to accommodate to our changing society. It is being practiced in seminaries and congregations. â€Å"Emerging Christianity† is closer to the teachings of Jesus because it includes everyone and it is centered around the three things Jesus emphasized himself; compassion, justice, and peace. â€Å"Emerging Christianity† does not say anything about excluding homosexuals, those who get abortions, and the teachings of evolution. Yet, it focuses on practices and teachings of the Christian tradition, e specially to the older generation, allowing them to rediscover God whom they might have become skeptical of. Life is about following Jesus and becoming one with God, and overall â€Å"Emerging Christianity† does just that, by inflicting fewer judgments and teaching Christianity for a better understanding (Malloy, 2007, p. 27). â€Å"Fr. Rick† and â€Å"Father Richard† both have strong opinions. Personally, I see both sides, a world that wants government involved and a world that does not. I feel that many of what conservatives believe in is what Catholics believe in, such as, abortion, the death penalty, and same-sex marriage is wrong. To be honest, before I came to the University ofShow MoreRelatedReflections Of The Gospel : Reflections Essay1131 Words   |  5 PagesReflections of the Gospel Introduction The Essential knowledge of the gospels is imperative if one is to live a Holy life. Many factors go along with living a Christian life. First, one must believe in the Son of God. Second, one must believe that Jesus Christ was crucified on the cross for mans’ sin so that that man may have eternal life. Moreover, one must believe that Jesus died and rose from the grave and defeated death so that mankind may live in eternity with our Lord. We are to live aRead MoreA Reflection On Gospel Essentials1891 Words   |  8 PagesGospel Essentials We will never be good enough, wise enough, or flawless. Humankind will always live in sin because we are powerless by our own devices. If there is any question about this point, simply watch an evening news program and look at what happens all across the world on a daily basis. That is the shocking news. The good news is there is a solution; faith in God through Christ offering forgiveness of our sins and for our salvation. The consequences we have on earth are directly relatedRead MoreGospel Of John Reflection727 Words   |  3 PagesThe Gospel of John is a 2003 film that is the story of Jesus life as narrated by the Gospel of John. This film was my first encounter with a film that depicts the story of Jesus. This visual representation of the Gospel of John does a good job of following along the Gospel almost word for word. 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Also in this paper the reader will learn what the similarities and differences John has from the Synoptic Gospels

Aboriginal Canadians and European Settlers Free Essays

Aboriginal Canadians and European settlers In the history of contact between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal peoples in Canada, there has been an imbalance in acculturative influences. Generally, Aboriginal peoples have been changed substantially, with serious erosion of their cultures and identities. However, this dominance by Euro Canadian peoples has also been met by resistance by Aboriginal peoples. We will write a custom essay sample on Aboriginal Canadians and European Settlers or any similar topic only for you Order Now Policy and programme changes to alter the relationship between these two sets of people are suggested, including a reduction in pressures toward assimilation and segregation which have historically resulted in the marginalization of Aboriginal Peoples in Canada. When individuals experience intercultural contact, the issue of who they are comes to the fore. Prior to major contact, this question is hardly an issue; people routinely and naturally think of themselves as part of their cultural community, and usually value this attachment in positive terms. Of course, other life transitions (such as adolescence) can lead people to wonder, and even doubt, which they are. But it is only during intercultural contact that their cultural identity may become a matter of concern. The Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples established a research project on Aboriginal cultural identity, and commissioned reports on the subject. This paper is based on one of those reports, and draws upon concepts, data and analyses that were carried out as a consultant to that project The main line of argument in this paper is that intercultural contact between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal peoples in Canada (both historically, and at the present time), has initiated a process of acculturation (at both the cultural and psychological levels), during which Aboriginal peoples have experienced cultural disruption, leading to reducedwell-being and to identity confusion and loss. It is further argued that sincethis process has resulted from interactions between Aboriginal and nonAboriginal peoples, the key to reestablishing a sense of well-being and secure cultural identity resides in restructuring the relationships between these two communities. This paper contains four sections: a discussion of the concept of cultural identity, as it derives from the social science literature; a brief review of the process and consequences of intercultural contact; a summary of the main findings; and a discussion of their implications for policy and programmed. May lead to more positive identities, and to cultural and psychological outcomes that are more fulfilling. Breton and Norman fishermen came into contact with the Algonquians of the northeast at the beginning of the 16th century, if not earlier, as they put into natural harbors and bays to seek shelter from storms and to replenish water and food supplies. There is some indication that these first contacts with Aboriginal inhabitants were not always friendly. A few individuals were kidnapped and taken to France to be paraded at the court and in public on state and religious occasions. Also, precautions seem to have been taken to hide the women inland when parties landed from ships engaged in cod fishing or walrus hunting. On the other hand, there were mutually satisfactory encounters as trade took place. The Algonquian brought furs, hides and fish in exchange for beads, mirrors and other European goods of aesthetic and perhaps spiritual value. Both sides seemed content with this growing exchange. Soon the Algonquian exacted goods of more materialistic value, such as needles, knives, kettles or woven cloth, while the French displayed an insatiable desire for well-worn beaver cloaks. In the 16th century, the French, like their western European neighbors, proceeded to lay claim to lands â€Å"not possessed by any other Christian prince† based on the European legal theory of Terra Nullius. This theory argued that since these lands were uninhabited, or at least uncultivated, they needed to be brought under Christian dominion. The royal commission to ROBERVAL for the St Lawrence region, dated 15 January 1541, and La Roche’s commission for SABLE ISLAND in 1598 enjoined acquisition either by voluntary cession or conquest. By the early 17th century, as the FUR TRADE expanded and Catholic missionary work was seriously contemplated, a policy of pacification emerged. The fact that the French chose to colonize along the Bay of Fundy marshlands and the St Lawrence Valley, from which the original Iroquoians had disappeared by 1580, meant that no Aboriginal peoples were displaced to make way for colonists. This peaceful cohabitation remained characteristic of Aboriginal-French relations up to the fall of ACADIA (1710) and of NEW FRANCE (1760). Beyond the Acadian farmlands and the Laurentian seigniorial tract, the Aboriginal peoples on their ancestral lands continued to be fully independent, following their traditional lifestyle and customs. Royal instructions to Governor Corellas in 1665 emphasized â€Å"the officers, soldiers and all His Majesty’s adult subjects treat the Indians with kindness, justice and equity, without ever causing them any hurt or violence. Furthermore, it was ordered that no one was to â€Å"take the lands on which they are living under pretext that it would be better and more suitable if they were French. † Royal instructions in 1716 not only required peaceful relations with the Aboriginal peoples in the interests of trade and missions but also forbade the French from clearing land and settling west of the Montreal region seigneurs. In the PAYS Dà ¢â‚¬â„¢EN HAUT, care was taken to obtain permission from the Aboriginals before establishing a trading post, fort, mission station or small agricultural community such as Detroit or in the Illinois country. Following a conference with 80 Iroquois delegates at Quebec in the autumn of 1748, Governor La Galissoniere and Intendant Bigot reaffirmed that â€Å"these Indians claim to be and in effect are independent of all nations, and their lands incontestably belong to them. † Nevertheless, France continued to assert its sovereignty and to speak for the â€Å"allied nations† at the international level. This sovereignty was exercised against European rivals through the allied â€Å"nations,† not at their expense through the suppression of local customs and independence. The Aboriginal peoples accepted this protectorate because it offered them external support while permitting them to govern themselves and pursue their traditional ways. The MI’KMAQ, and later the Arenac, accepted the Catholic religion, even in the absence of large-scale sustained evangelization, as a confirmation of their alliance and brotherhood with the French and resistance to Anglo-American incursions. When the Milkman eventually signed a treaty of peace and friendship with the British authorities at Halifax in 1752, the ABENAKI who had taken refuge in Canada rebuffed the official delegate of the governor at Boston. Beginning their apostolic labors in Acadia in 1611 and in Canada in 1615, Catholic MISSIONARIES dreamed of a rapid conversion of Aboriginal peoples and even wondered if they might not be descendants of the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel. Traditional Milkman and Montagnais hospitality dictated that the itinerant missionaries be well received. Soon evangelization efforts were centered on the sedentary, horticultural and strategically located HURON confederacy (see STE MARIE AMONG THE HURONS). But factionalism arising out of favoritism shown to converts and the EPIDEMICS that decimated the population almost brought the mission to a close. On two occasions, the JESUITS were spared execution or exile on charges of witchcraft only by French threats to cut off the trade on which the Huron had become dependent. Following the dispersal of the Huron in 1648-49, the missionaries turned to other groups in the Great Lakes basin, including the IROQUOIS confederacy, but they never enjoyed great success. Aboriginal peoples assumed a tolerant dualism: â€Å"you can have your ways and we will have ours, for everyone values his own wares. More success was achieved on the reductions, or reserves (see INDIAN RESERVE) as they came to be known, established within the seigniorial tract of New France. In 1637 the seigneur of SILLERY near Quebec was designated a reduction for some Montagnais encamped nearby as well as for all the northern hunters who would take up agriculture under Jesuit tutel age. Although the Montagnais did not remain long, some Arenac refugees came to settle, and finally Huron who escaped from the Iroquois conquest of their country. Eventually there were reserves near each of the three French bridgeheads of settlement: Loretta near Quebec for the Huron; Betancourt and Saint-Francois near Trois-Rivieres for the Abenaki; Kahnawake near Montreal for the Iroquois and Lac-des-Deux-Montagnes for both ALGONQUINS and Iroquois. These reserves were relocated from time to time at ever greater distances from the principal towns not only because of soil exhaustion but also because of the desire of the missionaries to isolate the Aboriginal converts from the temptations of alcohol, prostitution and gambling. The Kahnawake reserve, with the connivance of certain Montreal merchants, became an important link in an illicit trade with Albany and New York. The French designated those Aboriginal peoples who settled on these reserves under the supervision of Missionaries as â€Å"Indiens domicilies† (resident Indians). Those who came to live on reserves were motivated by religious ideals and the need to escape persecution or encroachment on their lands, but in time the economic advantages became quite substantial. It was often on the reserves that canoemen, scouts and warriors were recruited for trade and war. The products of the field and the hunt, as well as the manufacture of canoes, snowshoes and moccasins found a good outlet on the Quebec market. At the time of the British CONQUEST of New France in 1760, the â€Å"resident Indians’ were united in a federation known as the SEVEN NATIONS of Canada. It is possible that this Aboriginal political organization, whose membership evolved over the years, dates back to the early days of the French regime at the time when the first Aboriginal â€Å"reductions† (reserves) were created in the St Lawrence valley. Official French objectives had been to christianize and francize the Aboriginal peoples in order to attain the utopian ideal of â€Å"one people. † The church tried to achieve this objective through itinerant missions, education of an Aboriginal elite in France, reserves and boarding schools, but in the end it was clear that the Aboriginal peoples would not abandon their culture, even when converted. It was the missionaries who, like the fur traders, learned the Aboriginal languages and adopted Aboriginal survival techniques. Racial intermarriage, or metissage, traced its origin to the casual encounters, almost exclusively between Aboriginal women and Frenchmen deprived of European spouses, beginning with the fishermen and sailors along the Atlantic seaboard, and spreading into the hinterland as traders and interpreters, later unlicensed COUREURS DE BOIS, and finally garrison troops came into contact with the interior communities. VOYAGEURS and canoemen travelling to and from the upper country of Canada in the interests of the fur trade acquired the services of Aboriginal women to make and break camp, cook, carry baggage and serve as mistresses. Many of these unions became long-lasting and were recognized locally as legitimate a la facon du pays. Canon law forbade the marriage of Catholics with pagans, so missionaries often had to instruct and baptize adults and children and then regularize such unions. In 1735 Louis XV forbade most mixed marriages; nevertheless the rise of METIS communities in the Great Lakes basin, particularly along Lake Superior, indicated the prevalence of the practice. Warfare was an aspect of Aboriginal life in which the French soon became involved. Most of the Aboriginal people remained steadfastly attached and loyal to France through to PONTIAC’s rising in 1763, with the exception of the Iroquois, Fox and Sioux. Champlain, by supporting his Algonquian and Huron trading partners in 1609, earned the long-lasting enmity of the Iroquois. The French were unable to save the Huron from destruction at the hands of the Iroquois in 1648-49, nor were they able to stop Iroquois incursions into their own or their western allies’ territories until the peace of Montreal in 1701 (see IROQUOIS WARS). The Fox became hostile in 1712 and were the objects of several military expeditions before their dispersal in 1730. The Sioux also often attacked France’s trading partners and allies before agreeing to a general peace settlement in 1754. Canadian militiamen and Aboriginal auxiliaries distinguished themselves also in expeditions to aid Louisiana against the Chickasaws and the Natchez. The escalation of tensions between the French and English over control of the fur trade in North America led to the signing of the TREATY OF UTRECHT in 1713. Under the terms of the treaty, France retained access to Cape Breton Island, the St Lawrence Islands and fishing rights off Newfoundland but ceded Acadia (Nova Scotia) to the British and recognized British jurisdiction over the northern territory of RUPERT’S LAND and the island of Newfoundland. The Mi’kmaq, MALISEET and Passamaquoddy of the area, considered themselves to be friends and allies and not subjects of the French Crown, as well as the rightful owners of the territory ceded to the British Crown. The lack of consultation regarding the terms of the treaty, and the lack of compensation provided to the Mi’kmaq, Maliseet and Passamaquoddy upset them greatly, significantly shifting the balance of power and Aboriginal-French relations in the area. France spent large sums of money for the annual distribution of the â€Å"King’s presents† to the allied nations. In addition, the Crown issued clothing, weapons and ammunition to Aboriginal auxiliaries, paid for their services, and maintained their families when the men were on active duty. These Aboriginal warriors were judged invaluable for guiding, scouting and surprise raiding parties. Their war aims and practices, including scalping and platform torture, were not interfered with as they generally fought alongside the French as independent auxiliaries. In defeat, the French remembered them, obtaining in the terms of capitulation (1760) that they be treated as soldiers under arms, that they â€Å"be maintained in the Lands they inhabit,† and that they enjoy freedom of religion and keep their missionaries. These terms were further reiterated in the Treaty of Oswegatchie, negotiated by Sir William JOHNSON, at Fort Levis (near present-day Ogdensburg, New York), on 30 August 1760, and reaffirmed at Kahnawake on 15-16 September 1760. These two treaties set out the terms for British protection of the interest of the Seven Nations and for the peaceful colonial occupation of their lands. As a result of this conquest, the French monarchy capitulated New France to Great Britain and on 10 February 1763, France and Great Britain signed the TREATY OF PARIS. The treaty outlined the conditions of the capitulation, which involved a series of land exchanges in which France handed over their control of New France to the English. Article 4 of the treaty provided for the transfer of French control of lands in North America east of the Mississippi River to Great Britain. Under the terms of the treaty, Great Britain also gained control of Florida from the Spanish, who took control of New Orleans and the Louisiana territory west of the Mississippi River from the French. In order to establish jurisdiction in the newly conquered Canadian colonies, on 7 October 1763, King George III and the British Imperial Government issued a Royal Proclamation outlining the management of the colonies. Of particular importance, the proclamation reserved a large tract of unceded territory, not including the lands reserved for the Hudson’s Bay Company, east of the Mississippi River as â€Å"hunting grounds† for Aboriginal peoples. As well, the proclamation established the requirements for the transfer of Aboriginal title to the Crown, indicating that the Crown could only purchase Aboriginal lands and that such purchases had to be unanimously approved by a council of Aboriginal people. The proclamation also provided the terms for the establishment of colonial governments in Quebec, West Florida, East Florida and Grenada. The colonies were granted the ability to elect general assemblies under a royally appointed governor and high council, with the power to create laws and ordinances, as well as establish civil and criminal courts specific to the area and in agreement with British and colonial laws. References: 1994 Aboriginal Cultural Identity. Report submitted to the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples. Ottawa, Ontario Aboud, F. 1981 Ethnic Self-identity, in R. C. Gardner and R. Kalin (Editors): A Canadian Social Psychology of Ethnic Relations. Toronto: Methuen. Keefe, S. E. 1992 Ethnic Identity: The Domain of Perceptions of, and Attachment to Ethnic Groups and Cultures. Human Organization 51 :35-43. How to cite Aboriginal Canadians and European Settlers, Essay examples

Sunday, April 26, 2020

Sandusky Scandal Essay Example

Sandusky Scandal Essay In the concepts that govern B and the Penn State scandal, the research considers how ethics, culture, and leadership become key factors in how a business operates within itself (Organizational Behavior c. 15-16). Throughout this research I will identify three issues that are underlining factors to B and the Sandusky scandal. The first question of research is the exploration of organizational culture theories: to explain why Penn State employees were more interested in protecting Sandusky, than exposing the truth about sexually abused children. The second interest of research is examining the group dynamics of: leadership, inferior counterparts, and environment; and discover which of these here dynamics held majority to lesser responsibility/blame. The last topic of this research I will attempt to answer is: discovering when the lines between ethics and business became blurred; and if/why they are capable of being kept separate. 3 Introduction There are multiple dynamics that took place during the exposure of Jerry Sandusky who was a former defensive coordinator for Penn State University football team. This scandal came as a shock to the university, football society, and the nation. The fact that these crimes occurred themselves was not as shocking or provoked as much Edie attention and outcry, as the fact that some university officials had knowledge of the on-going sexual abuse; which occurred on school property, but chose to enable Sandusky by covering it up for over a decade. School officials ignored Sandusky behavior to avoid ruining the schools reputation or worse Jeopardizing the football programs legacy built by Sandusky and his counterparts (Rockaways, n. . ). The idea that school officials may have been in over their heads because of the culture of unity that surrounds football, and what the success of the team meant to the reputation of Penn State University. The B dynamic of the key players that contributed to Sandusky being able to abuse children for as long as he did was conducive to the Penn State environment of making success a priority over ethics and integrity (Bau er and Reardon, 2012). We will write a custom essay sample on Sandusky Scandal specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Sandusky Scandal specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Sandusky Scandal specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer The leaders within the university knew about the abuse and the followers who were aware knew their inferiority to the core group (Sandusky and his counterparts) making them too afraid to speak up (Patella, 2013). The leaders at Penn State University were held to a code of ethics as all universities are, except this abuse would not have been tolerated had Penn State officials ethics en monitored or scrutinized, meaning there were no checks and balances to govern the actions of Sandusky or the school officials (Alder, 2013). Pennsylvania State University Scandal 4 Contributing Factors Overview Jerry Sandusky was investigated in 2011 when it was exposed that he had been sexually abusing children. Sandusky had invested 32 years into coaching and mentoring young lives through Pennsylvania State University football program, along with The Second Mile charity for at risk youth he founded. Sandusky undoubtedly appeared to be an upstanding citizen and role model. Sandusky created a way to continue his abuse past retiring as assistant coach from Penn State in 1999. Sandusky was still able to receive full access to the Penn State facilities and maintain an office through the university officials granting him special privileges; despite the fact of abuse allegations surfacing in 1998. In 2011 the initial shock of the media and reports of the Sandusky scandal uncovering years of victims and allegations, left spectators in disbelief. The idea that this type of abuse went undetected from 1994 to 2009 seemed preposterous. The fact of the matter is that Sandusky was enabled to intention his abuse through high ranking school officials sweeping Sandusky behavior under the rug (Chapel, 2012). The school officials that contributed to covering up the Sandusky scandal were: Penn State athletic director Tim Curler, senior vice president for finance and business including overseeing the university police Gary Schultz, Penn State football coach, Joe Pattern and university president, Graham Spanner. All four of the elite university officials became informed of Sandusky sexual misconduct by a graduate assistant Mike Macaques who later became assistant coach to Pattern (Chapel, 2012). After Sandusky sexual misconduct was officially brought to the attention of these key officials the solution was to basically punish Sandusky by telling him he is no longer allowed to shower with the boys on campus facilities. The core group Pennsylvania State University Scandal 5 of officials completely ignored the fact that the boy Sandusky was seen by Muscular engaging in a sexual act at 9:30 p. M. On a Friday, was no more than 10 years of age; which warrants the question why the young boy was on the university campus at all. It was the consensus of the elite core group to lessen the situation from what Macaques reported as anal sex to what Spanner labeled horsing around and excused any reasons to tell the authorities or human resources (Peel, 2012). Keep in mind none of the elite group of officials considered asking Sandusky his side of the story or even telling him the extent of what they were advised by Macaques (Chapel, 2012). Issues/Solutions Protecting Sandusky at all cost is what appeared to be the theme throughout decades of abuse. The questions of why the elite group of officials was more fixated on protecting Sandusky secrets then protecting the children of abuse. After the sex scandal was biblically exposed in 2011, Penn State hired their independent former FBI director Louis Freer to investigate the case. Throughout Freshs investigation it became more evident that Spanner, Pattern, Schultz, and Curler knew more about the allegations then Penn State administrative board initially realized (Chapel, 2012). The bottom line as to why this elite group covered up Sandusky behavior is not because he was their best colleague ever but more for the betterment of the groups function as having prestigious and successful reputation as a whole. The behavior of the elite group in terms of organizational behavior is described as utilitarianism which explains that decisions are made for the team or group based on the most ideal outcome that creates the greatest good for majority of the group (Robbins ; Judge, 2014). Based on this Pennsylvania State University Scandal 6 theory it would not have mattered what type of crime the senior officials covered up for Sandusky because they would have remained silent for the betterment of the greater purpose that drove Penn State; which is football status and revenue. After he investigation conducted by Freer he made a statement as follows: The most senior officials at Penn State had shown a total and consistent disregard for the welfare of children, had worked together to actively conceal Mr.. Sandusky assaults, and had done so for one central reason: fear of bad publicity would have hurt the nationally ranked football program, Mr.. Patterns reputation as a coach of high principles, the Penn State brand and the universitys ability to raise money as one of the most respected public institutions in the country (Peel, 2012). The solution to his organizational dysfunction and most problems in organizational business is maintaining checks and balances. One solution I will highlight from Robbins and Judge, Organizational Behavior is the concept of transparent communication (2014, p. 175, 327). Part of the problem is keeping the secrecy without having an outside unaffiliated opinion of the group/situation involved. Implementing transparency between separate groups would help prevent the breakdown in communication by senior department officials. Including implementing policies that the human resource department is automatically notified of any discrepancy among leadership ND their conduct regardless of how trivial the complaint. Creating a transparency in communication between departments and HRS could prevent mass media scandals as the one involving Sandusky and serve as a safety net to the business. B: Leaders, Followers, and Environment 7 The breakdown of leadership, subordinates, and environment, plays a crucial role in how the Sandusky crimes continued throughout the decades. The Triangle Dynamic of the leaders, followers, and environment explores the idea that each part plays a hand in contributing to the issue of the Sandusky scandal. As previously discussed he elite force of leadership officials within Penn State demonstrated a lack of accountability towards each other, and in the same sense the senior officials involved never explicitly discussed the need to keep Sandusky behavior an actual secret it was more of an unsaid notion of the group. According to the report of the special investigation counsel by Spooking and Sullivan, 2012; In 1998 Sandusky was reported to the Penn State University Police as taking a shower with an 11 year old boy and giving him a bear hug from behind. The 11 year old boy was a participant in the second mile charity and Sandusky bought him onto university property where he showered with the boy in the coachs locker room after a workout. The police report was initiated by the boys mother. The details of the police investigation alleging child sexual abuse was confidentially shared by the university chief of police Thomas Harmon to Schultz, who was closely monitoring the investigation. Schultz informed Curler and Spanner (including one email to Pattern) of Sandusky being investigated. Schultz intentionally failed to inform HRS or the administrative board of trustees about n on-going investigation of alleged child abuse involving coach Sandusky. Although it was noted of correspondence between Curler and Schultz expressing concern that Sandusky had been showering with several boys before this initial report and that there could be an underling issue. The investigation concluded by Chief Harmon informing Schultz that no action would be taken and no official case number on record detailing the investigation as a sex crime offense, but instead an administrative in house report because no Pennsylvania State University Scandal 8 crime was established. Schultz did not take any administrative action to prohibit Sandusky from this behavior in the future. Schultz also trusted the opinions of the investigator at the time, instead of calling a specialist to weigh in on the matter to what Sandusky behavior was classified as. Spooking and Sullivan, 2012, research supports the notion that Schultz had a moral concern about Sandusky behavior but lacked the ethical aptitude to face possible repercussion that could tarnish the Penn State football legacy had HRS or board of trustees been made aware of the scandal in 1998. Schultz showed a loyalty to the environment that Penn State football set forth, which was the mentality of success above all else. In a way had the Sandusky investigation in 1998 been made public or handled with transparent communication between departments, it would have tarnished the name of leadership and athletic success that Penn State used as their selling point in recruitment to the university. Solutions to leadership issues in organizational behavior theories would be training! Robbins and Judge in Organizational Behavior, discuss skills that define effective from ineffective leadership. Schultz, Curly, Pattern, and Spanner all handled the Sandusky Scandal poorly, partway because they did not develop good conceptual skills. Organizational behavior explains conceptual skills as the mental ability to analyze and diagnose complex situations that require conceptual skills. Decision making requires managers to identify problems, develop alternative solutions to correct those problems, evaluate those alternative solutions, and select the best one, (Robbins, Judge, 2014, p. 8). At no point did senior officials utilize these skills. It is possible they did not consider a solution because they were shocked and afraid choosing to cover Sandusky behavior up. If that was the case, another solution would have been to utilize information and expertise from an outside source that could have weighed in a more unbiased Pennsylvania State University Scandal 9 solution, which would be someone who was trained in technical skills (someone who is trained with extensive formal education) and human skills (someone with the ability to understand and communicate between the groups). This should sound familiar because it is commonly what Human Resource does in conflict resolution, yet was not utilized in 1998 or 2001 to form a direction to permanently put a stop to Sandusky; because of the potential consequences it would have created for the athletic department and reputation of the university. Followers and the dynamic of Subordination, fast-forward to 2000 when the Janitor witnessed Sandusky performing oral sex on a young boy; and 2001 when graduate assistant Macaques witnessed anal sex in the shower between a Sandusky and a young boy. Both subordinates being the Janitor and Macaques immediately reported what they witnessed to their superior. Both Janitor and Macaques followed chain of command hoping the issue would be resolved by someone more authoritative. They appeared to carry the personal, moral, and ethic responsibility that would have invoked reporting the crime directly to the police. However, both the Janitor and Macaques were participants in the good 01 boy system for fear of stepping on their superiors discretions decision of the incident. The Janitor was afraid of going against the prestige of the elite status created by the football programs leadership. Whereas Macaques was afraid of what it would mean for Sandusky and others involved in the leadership of the university athletics. Both Macaques and the Janitor were concerned but not willing to risk their polished or reputation to prompt an investigation on their own accord (Bass Newman, 2013). Once again outside individuals learning of Sandusky indiscretions were incapable of going against their environment which taught them to idle the success of the team and its pride above any individual Pennsylvania State University 10 issue. As a result the abuse allegation rested on the shoulders of the leadership between Curly, Schultz, Spanner, and Pattern to discretely deal with Sandusky. In chapter twelve of Organizational Behavior 2014, Judges and Robbins talk about the concept of knowledge based trust. This concept helps explain why Macaques and even the Janitor felt as though reporting the incident to their superior was the end of their responsibility. Organizational Behavior explains knowledge based trust as having adequate information about someone to understand them well enough to be able to accurately predict their behavior ND the more communication and regular interaction you have with someone the more the trust is developed and depended upon. Based on this B concept Macaques had some trust in Pattern to do what was best by reporting Sandusky behavior to him directly, making Macaques feel as Hough he had done the right thing given the situation. The implication of this concept would explain why Macaques felt more accountability to speak with Pattern a man in leadership that he trusted over reporting it to HRS or the police. The same B concept could explain why the information about the alleged abuse was only shared between Curly, Schultz, Pattern, and Spanner, because they were a close group that had been together for decades and understood the idea of keeping the Football program above all else and their unity was built in knowledge based trust and their underlining belief that Sandusky was misunderstood and not a sexual predator (Spooking Sullivan, 2012). Solutions to the role of followers would be clear communication and personal accountability. Managers should train their subordinates to take responsibility and initiatives to problem solve issues instead of solely relying on the discretion of a supervisor to develop a Pennsylvania State University Scandal 11 solution. Organizational behavior refers to the concept of perception and individual decision making Judge Robbins, 2014. P. 159). In this concept empowering on-management to solve problems and make decisions based on their perception of the situation, causing the individual to derive reasoning on their own. If this concept occurred when Macaques first observed Sandusky immoral behavior he would have felt empowered to make a decision such as notifying the police; instead of passing the responsibility onto a senior official who downplayed the seriousness of the situation because the decision was based on Patterns personal perception. The environment played the largest role in the cover up of the Sandusky scandal because here was more at stake to lose, which was the prestige of the athletic department and the reputation of integrity and success in which the university principals were built. In 2011 the Sandusky Scandal became public knowledge. The focus was on assessing blame and the dysfunction of leadership as the root cause for the cover up. Numerous articles were written by ESP., The Washington Post, and The New York Times, educating the public and swaying opinions as to who should be held responsible in the publics eye for the scandal. In the publics opinion Pattern was cost responsible and his years of goodwill and honor have come undone (Hill, 2012). Newspapers went on to call Pattern a liar and a cover-up artist Indictable hypocrite Nonsense, 2012). The New York Times wrote an article holding Macaques responsible for witnessing child sodomys and lacking any sense of morality or ethics to not immediately call the police (Dodd, 2011). Schultz, Curly, and Spanner were also blasted by Sports Illustrated as scumbags who failed to report the 2001 incident to police and kept their knowledge inclusive to their group (Staples, 2012). All of the media attention and weigh-ins by other sports officials did not consider the offending group environment that influenced the cover up, or the lack of 12 leaderships emotional intelligence in terms of organizational behavior to handle a situation like the one Sandusky created. For forces that drove the environment of success at all cost that Penn State officials operated under, was the necessity to commercialism universities and airframe them as profitable corporations. The idea that cash flow increase creates a higher level of prestige therefore makes them more palpable of providing a sought out education (Group, 2007). Universities that become affluent corporations governed by the democratic process, focused on university programs that generate the most popularity and revenue; and contribute less to social good and human morality (Group, 2007). The Penn State University football athletic program generated on average 1. 83 million a year; because of their ability to win at all cost and keep the face of integrity and unity. The entire university and football program was centered and commercialese around the idea of strong leadership. That being said it was not one individual involved in the scandal that could possess more blame over the other because the senior officials lived by the code the university environment created and profited from, making it an intangible entity or concept for one individual to represent in this scandal. Solutions to environment issues would be to minimize individual power and promote stronger conceptual organization. Pattern was held in such high esteem that he was able to use his power to remain head coach past the average age of retirement, despite the board of trustees encouraging him to retire. Pattern would not give up his control and the lack of dispersed centralization of authority and outside influences of check and balances continued to contribute to the lack of transparency and balance (Patella, 2007). Since the board of trustees was apathetic in their supervision of the universitys athletic department, they could have designed a more Pennsylvania 13 measurable way to perform checks and balances within the department, by holding all of its employees to an employment contract. This solution could have alleviated the pressure of making decisions on handling the power of an individual, because heir ethical and physical performance could be measured on a standard level. Part of the issue was that the athletic department carried a high amount of revenue for the school that everyone benefited from the work of a few (Alder, 2013). This type of situation is part of what made Penn State have unclear ethical motives in preserving the success and legacy of the football program, which brings this discussion to its last issue of blurred lines in ethics. The blurred line of ethics I believe first occurred in 1998 when the concern of sexual misconduct involving Sandusky and children first surfaced. The senior officials did not report this initial known incident to the administrative board or HRS because there was a potential that Sandusky behavior was an actual problem, as Schultz noted in his documents of the incident (Spooking Sullivan, 2012). Another big area where ethics broke down was when Spanner went against rules and regulations by allowing Sandusky to have special privileges after he retired; by granting him emeritus status allowing unlimited access to the university. Sandusky was able to come and go has he pleased using this special status to groom and sexually abuse more boys on university property, Spooking Sullivan, 2012. P 60). By not adhering to the standard rules and regulations, Spanner began to bluntly blur the lines of ethics and bend rules; making it impossible to impose on someone else afterwards. The moral and ethical decision to keep this incident closed record and hidden from the board was an unspoken choice by Schultz and Carry to protect the leadership of Penn State University. It was not until the scandal grew in 2000 2001 , that the senior officials acknowledged there may be a real problem but where in too deep and did not Pennsylvania State 14 know how to handle it. This concern along with denial are what prompted Schultz to seek outside council realizing these incidents were a part of a bigger issue with Sandusky (Spooking Sullivan, 2012). However, once the core group of officials again agreed to keep details of the incident hidden for the betterment of Penn State, they also ignored each of their individual consciences and moral ethics trusting the other persons Judgment and decisions over their own. Had there been no doubt that Sandusky intentions were innocent there would have not been so much secrecy surrounding it where any other issue was transparent between HRS, the board of trustees. There was a clear indication by these senior officials actions to weigh the success of the university over the code of principals and ethics it was founded on, focusing on the needs of the group and trust in each other over their obligation to protect children as school officials. Solution to ethical issues is a part of the previous discussion to implement checks and balances, rules and regulations. One way to prompt ethical behavior is to train employees to a see something, say something rule. This could be achieved by funding multiple lines of communication between departments and administration. The university could have easily funded a tip hotlist worked by an independent agency responsible for fielding and investigating complaints that could be summarized for the board of trustees in monthly meetings. This form of communication would create more openness to report department issues anonymously regardless if someone was covering it up. Chapter eight in Robbins and Judges Organizational Behavior, discusses the concept of courtship and grouping. An underlining issue of the Sandusky Scandal was that the core group was operating in a grouping capacity. According to B grouping occurs when a consensus overrides the realistic appraisal of alternative rouses of action, which is what resulted in the core group assigning Sandusky 15 behavior to being Just inappropriate oppose to criminal; because he was viewed as a longtime friend/colleague, instead of objectively situational based. The solution to this type of opinion forming in terms of B is utilizing courtship perception; which causes an individual to make a shift towards a less conservative opinion that would vary from the original groups position. Implementing a different course of action such as the officials idea to alert the police and HRS would have resulted in a better outcome for the entire group instead of its dismemberment from poor decision making and lack of leadership (2014, p. 263). Thoughts Conclusion and Ending The overall consensus of public opinion regarding the Sandusky scandal is that it could have been prevented. Considering how organizational behavior operates, its purpose is to create interpersonal relationships that serve a common purpose; whether it is a positive or negative outcome Monsoons, n. D. ). It is almost odd that the public reacted with such shock that an institution was capable of producing such a secretive environment believing they are above common law. The combination of individuals and environment that operate within a systematic structure influences the success or failures of businesses Monsoons, n. D. ). The structure of influence if based on the pattern of behavior that influences the environment and controls how individuals think and behave within that structured environment. Think about how B operates in other institutions that participate in scandalous behaviors and cover- ups. Since the dawn of enlightenment, the widespread scandals of the Roman Catholic Church have become a well-known secret. Thousands of reports have been add against the Catholic Church and their participation to cover-up child sexual abuse by Pennsylvania State University Scandal 16 priest. The notion of child abuse through the Catholic Church has been an on-going issue because of the loyalty shared among members of the church towards the Vatican (Kim, 2013). Like Penn State the Vatican is a representational imagine that people within the organization glorify. By comparison, in terms of a church and school being organizational institutions, Sandusky is as a priest; and the core group is as the clergy. Sandusky held a position of power that others sought to please and inform to; keep in mind, that scandals are seldom exposed until years after the initial occurrence (Kim, 2013). Yet after corruption within the organization becomes public, the blame does not fall on the entity that it represents. Mainly because people are not going to stop being catholic do to the reputation of priest the scandals have exhibited for the church. In the same terms, university students are not going to stop pursuing a higher education due to scandals within the athletic department. Scandals can be dismissed by blaming the corruption of those individuals involved while maintaining an image that the organization itself is not to be blamed for the behaviors of those that operate within it. Environments within an institution create a culture of the greater good mindset. There is an intangible entity that allows the most revolting acts of abuse virtually go unpunished (Borrowers, 2004). There is no difference in the fundamentals that govern B and its ability to take a group of people and control their behavior based on what bonds them to their organization and the environment within it. The institution of churches, schools, and governments operate under the same fundamental principles that is the basis of organizational behavior and what an individual is capable of within an inclusive environment loyal to a cause. The idea that organizational behavior is capable of producing the most influential environments in any type of group setting based on the individuals commitment to the greater cause of the Pennsylvania State University Scandal 17 institution itself, to the point of going against ones own morals and better Judgment (Hub, 2003). Organizational behavior is built on shared goals, commitment to the successes of the image, and deep trust towards the belief of an institution. For a member of the priesthood or faculty of the university to expose secrets would be a betrayal to what they have come to identify themselves as. This reason of exposing truths and feeling as though the individual has betrayed part of their own public identity, stands for public shaming; which may be worse than a moral driven secret and guilty conscious (Borrowers, 2013). Consider how powerful is the image for which one is willing and capable of committing crimes in the name of loyalty to their organization. References 8 Alder, C. (2013).

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

5 Differences Between Italian and English Capitalization

5 Differences Between Italian and English Capitalization While there aren’t a ton of differences between Italian and English when it comes to areas like punctuation or writing style, there are a handful you should know about in the realm of capitalization. Many words that are capitalized in English are not capitalized in Italian, and while knowing this won’t increase your spoken conversational ability, it will make your written communication, like emails and text messages, feel more natural. Differences in Capitalization Between Italian and English Italian and English capitalization differs in these areas: Days of the weekMonths of the yearProper adjectivesTitles of books, movies, plays, etc.Personal titles such as Mr., Mrs., and Miss. Days of the Week Here are some examples with the days of the week.   Arriva domenica. - He is arriving on Sunday.Ci vediamo lunedà ¬! - We’ll see each other on Monday! / See you Monday!Sei libero giovedà ¬? Ti va di prendere un aperitivo? - Are you free on Thursday? Do you want to get an aperitivo with me?A mercoledà ¬! - To Wednesday! (This is a common way to tell someone that you’ll be seeing them for the plans you made. In this case, the plans are on Wednesday.) Months of the year Il mio compleanno à ¨ il diciotto aprile. - My birthday is April 18.Vado in Italia a gennaio. Sicuramente si geler! - I’m going to Italy in January. It’s going to be really cold!A marzo, ho appena finito un corso intensivo di italiano. - I just finished an intensive Italian course in March. TIP: Notice how the preposition â€Å"a† goes before the month. Proper adjectives Proper adjectives are the descriptive form of the noun. For example, she’s from Canada (proper noun), which makes her Canadian (proper adjective). Lei à ¨ russa. - She’s Russian.Penso che siano canadesi. - I think they’re Canadian.Riesco a capire dal suo accento che lui à ¨ italiano. - I can tell from his accent that he’s Italian. Titles of Books, Movies, Plays, Etc. If you’re writing about a recent book or movie that you just read, you won’t capitalize the beginning of each letter in the title (excluding articles and conjunctions). Abbiamo appena visto â€Å"La ragazza del fuoco† L’hai visto anche tu? - We just saw Catching Fire. Did you also see it?Hai letto â€Å"L’amica geniale† di Elena Ferrante? Ti à ¨ piaciuto? - You read My Brilliant Friend by Elena Ferrante? DId you like it? Personal titles such as Mr., Mrs., and Miss. Il signor Neri à ¨ italiano. - Mr. Neri is Italian.Il mio nuovo capo si chiama signora Mazzocca. - My new boss’s name is Mrs. Mazzocca. TIP: You can use both forms with personal titles. In a formal context, like an email or a reference letter, you’ll want to capitalize all of the titles, like Prof. Arch. Dott. or Avv. minuscole a b c d e f g h i l m n o p q r s t u v z maiuscole A B C D E F G H I L M N O P Q R S T U V Z

Monday, March 2, 2020

Can You Write in the SAT Booklet

Can You Write in the SAT Booklet SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips After you take the SAT, your score will be determined by the little bubbles you fill in on your scantron sheet - a sheet where there’s no place to show your work. It’s normal (even important) to want to take notes and work through problems. Since you won't receive any extra scratch paper in the testing room, your SAT booklet is the place to do it. Here, I’ll go over what, how, and even why you should write in your test booklet. That little stack of paper might end up more helpful than you expected. Can You Write in the SAT Test Booklet? AsI mentioned above, you are allowed to write in the SAT booklet. There are no limitations to where or what you scribble (although I’d caution you against writing anything that could be construed as a message to other test-takers). I’ll go into more detail about how to use your booklet in the next section, but here’s the most important information you should take away from this article: Write anything you’d like - notes, diagrams, or calculations - but remember that nothing you write in the SAT test booklet will be graded. Graders won’t even see your test booklet, which means you don't have to worry about showing your work or making your notes legible. Even if you're not a big note-taker, you can still use your booklet to work more efficiently.For example, you might mark answers in your test booklet first, and then transfer your responses to the answer sheet at the end of the section (most students save time by doing this). How Do You Use the SAT Booklet Effectively? Some students love marking up tests and reading passages, whereas others have a natural tendency to keep their tests pretty pristine. I want to encourage you to make the most of your SAT test booklet by taking notes all over it! Here are some tips and strategies for marking your booklet that will save time and improve your performance: When you're taking the SAT, you'll want to make use of all available resources - including the SAT booklet itself. Use Notes to Engage With Reading Passages You'll have to read through quite a few passages on the SAT, and most of them aren't exactly exciting. It can be difficult to stay focused and alert over a long period of time, especially when you're dealing with material like this. You may end up wasting time if you have to read passages or sections of passages multiple times due to a lack of focus.Actively reading - taking notes and engaging with the passage the first time you read it - may help you save time. If you understand the passage better the first time you go over it, you won’t have to go back and re-read as often. This gives you more time to focus on the questions. Here are some universally helpful active reading strategies: Underlining topic sentences and thesis sentences Circling key terms Taking notes in the margins alongside each paragraph (e.g. just a few words summarizing the main point) Use Notes to Work Through Math Problems (Especially Word Problems) When you have to keep track of several variables or steps, writing down your thought process will keep you from getting confused. You should also mark up geometry diagrams with information that’s provided in the questions themselves! This is especially helpful when figures are not drawn to scale - you don't want to make any assumptions about the dimensions of a figure. Mark Up Your Questions and Answer Choices When you usethe process of elimination, get a helpful visual of your thought process by crossing off the answers you know to be incorrect (this saves you time if you come back to the question later). If you decide to skip a particularly difficult question - this is an important time management strategy - circle it! This provides a helpful visual cue for when you double back to the question after finishing the rest of the section. Don't Waste Time With Notes That Won't Help Your Score AsI mentioned earlier, no one is going to see or grade the notes you make on the SAT booklet. Don’t worry about explaining your answers (I know it’s a force of habit for many students) - there are no points for showing your work. The Most Important Things You Should Remember Yes, you can write all over the SAT test booklet. No, nothing you write on the booklet will be graded (so remember to transfer your answers to the response sheet). And yes, strategically marking up your booklet can save you time and improve your score! What's Next? Marking up your SAT booklet isn't the only helpful strategy you should know about before taking the test. First, you'll want to make sure you're physically and mentally prepared for test day. Start by checking out our guide to how you should spend the night before the SAT - then, read our post on exactly what to expect the day of the exam. Finally, learn about the top SAT test day tips to make sure you optimize your score. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points?We've written a guide about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now: